First of all, a variety of causes and consequences of youth unemployment are lined out. Subsequently, important aspects of youth unemployment policy – the training system, institutionalisation of public employment services (PES) as well as the regulation of social transfers in case of unemployment – are discussed in the three countries.
On that basis three types of school-to-work transition (STW) regimes are stated: Spain is an example for the solitary STW transition regime, a guided STW transition system can be found in the Czech Republic and Germany presents a typical case for the systematic STW transition regime.
The activating labour market policy approach corresponds with the respective ST transition regime.
In the solitary system high unemployment rates and low support from the social systems coexist. The labour market policy targets at a quick integration into the labour market (work-first).
The guided system has a comprehensive predominantly school-based training system and the activating labour market policy is work-first oriented.
In countries with systematic transitions the training system works as a bridge between school and training. Labour market policy for young people follows an enabling approach and aims at pre-vocational training measures to support the young to achieve a vocational training qualification in the long-term.
Dingeldey, Irene; Assmann, Marie-Luise; Steinberg, Lisa (2017): Jugendarbeitslosigkeit in Europa. Ein komplexes Problem – verschiedene Antworte. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Beilage zur Wochenzeitung das Parlament (APuZ, 26/2017), p. 40-46.